Science & Religion: Competitors or Companions?

Written by Darren Hewer

“All thinking men are atheists.”
Ernest Hemingway, author

“Atheism is so senseless and odious to mankind …”
Sir Isaac Newton, physicist

Are “all thinking men” really atheists as Hemingway asserted? If so, it would seem that religion and science would indeed be enemies.  However, history does not give us much support for this idea. Besides Sir Isaac Newton, many other great scientists have simultaneously held deep religious convictions, such as Johannes Kepler, Blaise Pascal, and Louis Pasteur.

Currently the situation is no different. Many scientists today also have religious convictions, such as Alister McGrath (who earned two doctorate degrees from Oxford, one in theology, the other in molecular biophysics). These examples of course prove nothing about the validity of Christianity or religion in general, but they at least demonstrate that it is possible to be a knowledgeable person of science as well as a religious believer.

So how exactly do science and religion co-exist with each other in the world? There are basically three options.

1)  Science and religion as totally separate fields of inquiry

One view of the relationship between science and faith was articulated by paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould as “Non-overlapping magisteria” (NOMA). Gould here uses the term “magestria” to refer to a domain of knowledge. In NOMA the two magesteria do not overlap.  Science and religion are just separate.

Gould cites an old cliché when he says that “science studies how the heavens go, religion how to get to heaven.” (Rock of the Ages, 6) Science, in this view, investigates objective empirical facts, whereas religion studies subjective questions of ultimate meaning. We could represent NOMA visually like this:

In practice, however, this approach is not so easy to achieve. Science and religion both address the same world, the same reality. They both impact how we understand and live in our world.  The scientist does not suddenly become a different person when they enter their church. Both fields make claims that affect the other.

Contrary to the NOMA view, science will on occasion make claims regarding religion, and religions in turn make factual claims about the world.  For example, Jesus rose from the dead, or he didn’t it cannot be both.  Considering the deficiencies of this view, some people choose to adopt a second view.

2)  Science and religion as identical fields of inquiry

This view is essentially the opposite to the NOMA view. It suggests that science and religion must occupy the same space because they seek to define the same world. If we were to draw the relationship, it would look something like this:

One of the difficulties of this view is that not all truth claims can be tested in the same way. A historical claim cannot be confirmed via the scientific method. The scientific method is a systematic process of question, hypothesis, testing, data analysis, conclusion, and repetition. Although elements of this process apply to historical testing, a historic event cannot be confirmed via scientific experiment, nor is a historical event repeatable (there’s no way we can go back in time to test it).

There are other examples of truths that cannot be adequately tested via the scientific method, such as the laws of logic (science presupposes logic), the actual existence of other minds, or other metaphysical truths. Yet we all believe logic, the existence of other minds, and many other such truths exist. In addition, we all believe in many experiential truths like love which no scientific experiment can demonstrate or capture in a test tube.

We seem to have been led to the conclusion that there are certain places which science and religion overlap, but others in which they do not. This is the third view of the relationship between science and religion.

3)  Science and religion as partially overlapping fields of inquiry

This view notes that there are both areas of overlap and areas of uniqueness. We could depict it like this, the darker gray area representing the overlapping area:

Albert Einstein once said that “A legitimate conflict between science and religion cannot exist. Science without religion is lame, religion without science is blind.” Although Einstein did not believe in a “personal” God (he was a deist) he was right when he said that true religion and accurate science cannot be in disharmony with one-another in the areas in which they overlap.

How religion differs

An objection that may come to mind at this point. “But science is different. Science gives us facts, religion just gives us opinions. Religion doesn’t lead to certainty.”

While it is true that science often leads to facts (keeping in mind that current scientific truths are often later corrected by further research) we should keep in mind that most of the truths we believe are based on probability, not absolute certainty. Even most of the scientific facts we believe are based on what we’ve been told.  Most of us have not personally conducted experiments to prove that gravity exists, but we believe it to be true.

One thing that makes evaluating religious beliefs particularly difficult is that they are multifaceted. Religion addresses not just empirical truths (though these are very important), but also addresses experiential, emotional, moral, and metaphysical truths.

Brian McLaren gives the following illustration of the difference between these types of truths:

Imagine a group of physicists and astronomers gathered for a lecture on cosmic background radiation. As the lab-coated lecturer drones on, the group is listening, taking notes, rubbing their chins, crossing and uncrossing their legs, maybe nodding a bit, occasionally mumbling, “Interesting,” or something of that sort. Suddenly, a woman walks briskly onto the stage and whispers something into the lecturer’s ear. He hands her the microphone and she says, “Ladies and gentlemen, a fire has broken out in the lobby. Please stay calm. Leave quietly and quickly through the exits on your left. Do not use the rear exits, as they are already smoke-filled and unsafe. Please follow me – this way.”

At this moment, no one keeps rubbing his chin, crossing and uncrossing her legs, taking notes, or mumbling, “Interesting.” The reason? Before, during the lecture, their situation allowed them the luxury of abstracted, disinterested detachment. But now, their real-life situation has been addressed, and the category of communication has changed from knowledge or information (a lecture on astrophysics) to news (of a threat to safety and life and how to escape it). (McLaren, Finding Faith, 16)

Religion includes not just abstract intellectual facts but also issues of the heart, of intimacy, and meaning, and destiny. This may be one of the reasons that religion can unfortunately become so contentious: It requires submitting all of our mental faculties to be truly understood.


We have been led to the conclusion that science and faith are not, in fact, enemies. They both attempt to describe and throw light upon reality, sometimes in complimentary ways, other times in ways that only their particular methodology can do.

For some, scientific study can lead them away from their faith, as their erroneous understanding of real faith conflicts with their new scientific knowledge. Others, however, such as astrophysicist Hugh Ross, are led to faith through studying science. He tells his story in the article My Search for Truth. I hope, similarly to Dr Ross, that you find the truth that you are searching for, the truth that truly satisfies our multifaceted search for intimacy, meaning, and destiny.

71 Responses to “Science & Religion: Competitors or Companions?”

  • Doris Beck Doris Beck says:

    Wishal lamin, if you are interested in the relationship of philosophy to science and religion may I suggest you read this article, and then go on to read more of Dr Durston’s blog posts. You will find them very thought provoking.

  • wishal lamin says:

    Epistemology and methaphysics

  • wishal lamin says:

    The relation of philosophy to science and religion by biography author Dr k.d. Ramsiej Dr.B.P.Tripathi

  • Jamie Jamie says:

    Hi Tongriang, thanks for your desire to investigate God through scientific study. I am no expert in this area but I would suggest that since God is Creator of all things, there isn’t any area of study that will not reveal His nature if you are willing to acknowledge it. I base that on Romans 1:19-20 truth that what can be known about God is plain in what He has made. Are there any specialities that you are specifically interested in?

  • Sharon says:

    good article and good comments on this thread thank you to all who post on here

  • Tongriang says:

    WAOW! I am blessed by this teaching. I am a science educator and a christian I must add. What possible field of studies for a doctoral research can I take to intergrateboth science and religion?
    Tong (Nigeria), Centre for Continuing Education, Theological College of Northern Nigeria

  • Aldo says:

    Subhankar Zac, say what you will about Religion, but the fact remains that Christianity is more than the belief in a god or in a group of gods (Merriam Webster); it is having a relationship with the Almighty Himself.

  • Subhankar Zac says:

    The first 10 searches on Google on the topic of “Science Vs Religion” automatically translates to “Science Vs Christianity”.
    Since NO, NOT A SINGLE RELIGION EXISTS outside the 3 Abrahamic ones apparently in the west.
    The west has been classifying Religion as Christianity for a long time, though now for the sake of inclusivity, Judaism and Islam also are SOMETIMES included, but that’s it.

    I m curious that in a world where there are thousands upon thousands of religions, why only Abrahamic ones?
    Science is much easily compatible with Buddhism, Confucianism, Religions of Hinduism, Taoism, Jainism, etc
    But rarely are these brought up in a nation where non Christians occupy less than 5% of the population.

    The western understanding of God is simply Black and White… There’s a Invisible omnipotent God with one divine son, many prophets and millions of celestial beings that no other idea Is easily immersible in their minds.

    Modern War machines seeming new to The west now are openly described in eastern faiths.
    Brahmastra comes as nuclear bomb, Brahmashirastra becomes a hydrogen bomb along with heat seeking missiles and other weapons.
    Stories of flying machines used by celestial beings are given in Egyptian faiths, Hinduism, Buddhism, Taoism, etc.
    Yogic and meditative power that can bring out energies of the universe through the bodies are illustrated in many ancient indian books.
    Early form of medicine without any side effects called Ayurveda comes out from the Vedas.
    Atheistic faiths exists in Hinduism with many schools.
    So don’t tell us science and Religion can’t exist. Perhaps in the monoideal form of belief in the west, bit elsewhere it openly does.
    It is only after the Vedas that celestial events and occurrences even the idea of the milky way existed in India.

  • IdPnSD says:

    For Tom on January 18, 2016 at 4:33 pm

    “And if the “theory” hasn’t been proven after thousands? of years,…” – What makes you think that it has not been proven. The book has given three different proofs with many examples for each approaches.

    Bible has two different interpretations: (1) money power interpretation and (2) Vedic interpretation. The Vedic interpretation is same as the interpretation given in the soul theory book. So in that sense Bible says the same theory. The money power interpretation is same as the mainstream interpretation. Hinduism also has the same two interpretations.

  • IdPnSD says:

    For: Jamie on January 18, 2016 at 4:44 pm

    “What is the difference between God and the soul?” – I thought I have discussed these things. But I will repeat.

    The environment of earth is filled with oxygen and nitrogen molecules. All oxygen molecules are same but they are all different molecules, they have different identities. If you point a pin to the sky, it will hit an oxygen molecule, if you point in another place it will hit another molecule. Both molecules have same properties, but they are two different molecules.

    In the same way the entire universe is filled with root material and root cause. Both are subtle particles invisible to human senses but visible to yogis. This root cause is the soul. Every object is made by one such soul from using many such root materials. Thus you are created by your soul and I am created by my soul. Our souls are different, just like two oxygen molecules.

    So, we are not created by God, but by our own souls. Same is true for all objects of the universe.

  • Tom Tom says:

    Can’t help but chuckle every time I read, “It’s discussed in the soul theory chapter.” If it’s only a theory, why would anyone take it seriously? And if the “theory” hasn’t been proven after thousands? of years, that would seem to indicate it’s not very plausible. I guess it’s like the “theory” of evolution which can’t be proven either.

  • Jamie Jamie says:

    So the soul is the mind behind Destiny? And the soul is the creator of all materials? And according the Theory of Souls, the soul is uncreated. That sounds a lot like what I would call God. What is the difference between God and the soul?

  • IdPnSD says:

    For: Jamie on January 18, 2016 at 2:19 pm

    “…there is no Mind behind Destiny.” – What makes you think that there is no mind behind destiny? Every object in the universe is created by its own individual soul – didn’t we discuss that before? All souls are same. Therefore all souls have mind. This is discussed very thoroughly in the soul theory chapter in the book at

  • Jamie Jamie says:

    As I look around I see too much purpose and intentionality to believe that there is no Mind behind Destiny. The Bible says that God does have plans for us and is leading us in accordance to those plans. He said, “I know the plans I have for you, plans to prosper you and not to harm you; plans to give you a hope and a future.” (Jeremiah 29:11)

    Destiny without a Mind guiding it is chaos and meaningless. There is within each of us a sense that there must be a purpose and meaning to life. A random Destiny does not give us meaning but only existence. My heart tells me that there is more to life than that.

    God’s will for my life can be known because He makes it known to me. The Bible repeatedly talks of God’s leading in our lives; that He cares for each one of us and wants the best for us. The great promise is, “In all things God works for the good of those who love Him, who are called according to HIs purpose.” (Romans 8:28) I would much prefer following a purposeful God rather than be a piece of flotsam in the meaningless cycles of purposeless Destiny.

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