Papers published in philosophy journals

    Durston, K., The Consequential Complexity of History and Gratuitous Evil, Religious Studies (2000) 36, 65-80.

    Some have argued that instances of evil that appear to be pointless are sufficient justification to conclude that God does not exist. This paper argues that, due to the fact that every event produces an exponentially increasing number of consequences stretching into the future of the actual world and other possible worlds, it is impossible for us to know what God should or should not permit. – View –  Download full article

    Durston, K., The Failure of Type-4 Arguments From Evil, in the Face of the Consequential Complexity of History, Philo (2006), 8, No. 2.

    Type-4 arguments from evil reason by abductive inference (inference to the best explanation) to the conclusion that gratuitous evil exists, therefore, God does not. In this paper, Durston shows that Type-4 arguments fail due to what we do not know about future history and alternate histories. – View  –  Download full article

    Durston, K., The Complexity of History and Evil: A Reply to Trakakis, Religious Studies (2006), 42, 87-99.

    Philosopher Nick Trakakis has raised some objections to the argument in my earlier paper (2000). Here, I respond to Trakakis’ objections to my earlier argument.   – View – Download full article

    Papers published in science journals

    Durston, K.K., Chiu, D.K.Y., Wong, A.K.C., Li, G.C.L., Statistical discovery of site inter-dependencies in sub-molecular hierarchical protein structuring, EURASIP J Bioinform Syst Biol. (2012) Jul 13;2012(1):8. doi: 10.1186/1687-4153-2012-8.

    A k-modes algorithm can be used to discover interdependent sites within an aligned sequence from which a cluster tree can be constructed, revealing sub-molecular interdependencies within the 3D structure of a protein family. – View –  Download full article

    Durston, K.K., Chiu, D.K.Y., Abel, D.L., Trevors, J.T., Functional Sequence Complexity in Biopolymers (Highly accessed), Theor Biol Med Model. (2007) Dec 6;4:47.

    In this paper, a method is presented for measuring the functional sequence complexity (also referred to as functional information) of proteins, using multiple sequence alignments for protein families, as well as a method for measuring changes in a protein, in terms of functional complexity.  – View  –  Download full article

    Other peer reviewed academic publications

    Durston, K.K.; Chiu, D.K.Y. (2011), Chapter 5. Functional Sequence Complexity in Biopolymers. In The First Gene: The Birth of Programming, Messaging and Formal Control, Abel, D. L., Ed. LongView Press–Academic, Biol. Res. Div.: New York, N.Y., pp 117-133. – ViewDownload full article

    Durston, K.K., Chiu, D.K.Y., (2005), A functional entropy model for biological sequences, Dynamics of Continuous, Discrete and Impulsive Systems: Series B Supplement.

    Durston, K.K., (2003), Review: Humble Apologetics, Philosophia Christi, 5, No. 2.




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